COVID vaccines faced counterfeits from the start! What if the individual bottle was watermarked with nanostructured barcodes, directly on the packaging? Traceability protects pharmaceuticals today, but only using labels and in some countries hologram stickers. As we have already seen, this doesn’t prevent counterfeiters from attempting to fool officials into buying fake copies. It seems like more levels of protection could become necessary, to erect more barriers against the risk that fake vaccines end up in real arms.